Start of text box Highlights Gender-based violence—defined as violence persnal is committed against someone based on their gender identity, gender expression or perceived gender—encompasses a range of behaviours, not all of which meet the threshold of criminal behaviour.
Five dimensions of ggirls violence are explored: unwanted sexual behaviour while in public, unwanted sexual behaviour online, unwanted sexual behaviour in the workplace, sexual assault, and physical assault. In contrast, men were more likely to have been physically assaulted. Not only were women more likely to experience these behaviours, the impact of them was also greater. Women were more likely than men to have changed their routines or behaviours and to have experienced negative emotional consequences.
Women were also more likely to have talked to somebody about their experience following an incident of unwanted behaviour or assault. Beside gender, being younger, having experienced harsh parenting, having been physically or sexually abused by privvate adult during childhood, and being single, never married, all play a role in experiencing gender-based violence.
For both men and women, younger age and sexual orientation increased the odds of experiencing this behaviour more than any other factor.
More specifically, being younger and of a sexual orientation other than heterosexual was associated with much higher odds. Women ssex more likely than men to know the perpetrator.
One in five victims of sexual assault—both women and men—felt blamed for their own victimization. End of text box All Canadians have the right to live free from violence. Gender-based violence—defined as violence that is committed against someone based on their gender identity, gender expression or perceived gender Women and Gender Equality Canada —can have serious long-term physical, economic and emotional consequences for victims, their families, and for society more broadly. Measuring gender-based violence is complex.
The victims—and even the perpetrators—may not themselves perceive the motivations for the incident as being rooted in social structures and systems, which can serve to produce and reproduce gender inequality and gendered violence across many dimensions.
Because of this, asking about gender-based violence directly in a survey may not lead to accurate findings or conclusions. Instead, asking about all experiences of violence and using contextual information—such as the gender of the victim and the perpetrator, the relationship between the victim and the perpetrator, and the nature and impact of the incident—allows for an examination of violence where the gender-based nature of an incident and the broader systemic factors underpinning these acts can be considered.
Using this general approach, decades of research and data collection in Canada show that women and girls are at higher risk of certain types of violence—and in many cases, other characteristics intersect with gender to impact the likelihood of experiencing violence. Factors such as age, race, disability, immigrant status, and sexual orientation all intersect and can impact risk and protective factors, as well as access to support services.
In addition to overt acts of pereonal, gender-based violence also includes behaviours that can be more subtle, yet may cause victims to feel unsafe, uncomfortable or threatened because peersonal were victimized because of their gender.
Unwelcome comments, actions, or advances while in public—despite not meeting a criminal threshold—may cause individuals to withdraw or to not otherwise fully engage in their daily activities or access spaces in which they have the right to freely use and enjoy Bastomski and Smith These behaviours can also serve to normalize, create, or support a culture where certain individuals feel targeted and discriminated against.
InStatistics Canada conducted the Survey of Safety in Public and Private Spaces SSPPS with the goal of advancing knowledge of gender-based violence in Canada by collecting information on experiences and characteristics of violent victimization as well as the continuum of other unwanted experiences while in public, online, or at work. A key contribution of the SSPPS is a measure of the prevalence and nature of unwanted sexual behaviours faced by many Canadians while accessing public spaces, while online, or while in the workplace.
This fills a critical gap by measuring behaviours that have ly not been a focus of other nationally representative surveys, given the fact that they tend not to rise to the threshold of criminal behaviour, and would therefore never be reported or included in other official data sources.
By igrls including questions which measure violence that meets the criminal threshold, such as physical and sexual assault, the SSPPS allows for a comparative analysis of the risk factors across the continuum of gender-based violence, while also providing more recent self-reported statistics on violent victimization. Start of text box 1 Text box 1 New questions on sex and gender and sexual orientation For the first time in a large-scale Statistics Canada household survey, the Survey of Safety in Public and Private Spaces SSPPS included questions on both sex ased at birth grils the gender of respondents.
These questions provide a more inclusive and accurate means of representing Canadians of all genders.
Sex refers to the biological and physiological characteristics that define males, females and intersex persons whereas gender refers to the roles and behaviours that society associates with being female or male Women and Gender Equality Canada Of note, this article presents data on women and men using their self-reported gender only and does not take into their sex ased at birth. For example, an individual whose ased sex at birth was male but who identifies as a woman is counted in this analysis as a woman.
In0. While data are available for transgender respondents, specific for gender-diverse respondents are not publishable due to small sample size and concerns for respondent privacy and confidentiality.
More fulsome analysis of the transgender and gender diverse population is planned for release in a report forthcoming in In addition, the question on sexual orientation was revised to ask respondents if they were heterosexual, lesbian or gay, bisexual, or to specify their sexual orientation if it was not one of the response provided. For the purposes of this report, the term sexual minority or sexual minorities is used to refer to those who stated their sexual orientation was anything other than heterosexual.
Where possible, are disaggregated to present information separately for those who are gay or lesbian, bisexual, or sexual orientation, n.
Data collection and increasing knowledge is a central grils of the Strategy and the SSPPS is one survey in a suite of tools being clntact for the purpose of better understanding and addressing gender-based violence in Canada. from the SSPPS will assist in the development of indicators that will be used to track progress and monitor trends related to the elimination of gender-based violence and harassment and the promotion of security of all people in Canada.
This report presents initial findings on a wide range of behaviours, from inappropriate comments in public or online to physical and sexual assaults. Although both women and men may experience IPVwomen tend to disproportionately girs the most severe forms Burczyckaare more likely to experience negative physical and emotional consequences as a result of the violence Burczyckaand comprise the majority of victims of intimate partner violence that is reported to police Burczycka b; Burczycka a.
To understand gender-based violence, it is critical to also understand the nature and prevalence of IPV.
However, in the context of this report, IPV has been excluded for two principle reasons. The breadth of these items, as well as the key addition of questions on the frequency of all types of behaviour, will facilitate analysis examining the various typologies and patterns of IPV and how they are experienced prrivate various subpopulations in Canada, as well prjvate exploring the risk factors, impacts and consequences, and prevalence of this type of violence.
Therefore, in addition to the information on criminal behaviours that is collected in the Survey of Safety in Public and Private Spaces SSPPSan important data gap filled by the survey is a measure of behaviours that are not necessarily criminal in nature, yet still compromise feelings of safety in daily life. peesonal
The behaviours measured in the SSPPS that are broadly classified as unwanted behaviours in public are: unwanted physical contact such as touching or getting too personnal in a prigate manner ; indecent exposure; unwanted comments about sex or gender; unwanted comments about sexual orientation or assumed sexual orientation, and; unwanted sexual attention such as comments, whistles, gestures, or body language. Respondents were asked to report only those instances that caused them to feel uncomfortable or unsafe.
These types of behaviours are often a function of societal norms, structures, and beliefs, given that, like sexual assault, they tend to be gender-based. Examining experiences in public spaces also acknowledges privwte, just as gender, age, and other characteristics intersect to influence the risk of being a victim of crime or experiencing unwanted behaviours, these same factors also guide how individuals perceive their own safety under certain conditions as well as how they use public spaces more generally Ceccato ; Perreault The most common type of unwanted behaviour women experienced in public was unwanted sexual attention, such as comments, gestures, body language, whistles, or calls.
More than 3.
This was in contrast to the other types of unwanted behaviour measured by the SSPPSwhich were more common among women. The information is grouped by Type of behaviour appearing as row headers personall, Women and Men, calculated using percent and standard error units of measure appearing as column headers.
Type of behaviour.